In contrast to the hopes that have prevailed over the past few years about the evolution of democracy worldwide, it is noted that, after decades of historical gains, the world is witnessing a democratic setback under the rise and domination of authoritarian regimes, threatening emerging democracies and Establishing new democracies around the world.
The world witnessed democratic transformations. It started with the American and French revolutions, and then became 29 democracies in 1922, down to 12 with the rise of communism, fascism and Nazism. Then, at the end of the Second World War, when the liberation from colonialism of countries such as India and Sri Lanka was transferred to democracy, it receded with events such as military coups in Bolivia and Brazil in 1964, and Argentina in 1966. In 1974 Portugal launched a clove revolution that overthrew the dictatorship that continued For almost half a century, more than 90 countries have been transformed into democracy. By the end of the last century, almost 60% of the world’s independent countries had become democratic states. The democratization of Mexico and Indonesia in the late 1990s and the “color revolutions” in Georgia and Ukraine The Tide Summit on Democratic Transformation was formed.
Democracy is declining in the world, while populism is on the rise, and authoritarianism is in progress. This is what events in recent years have shown, especially in Europe and the United States, where the presence and influence of two different streams is growing, although sometimes overlapping between them, the extreme nationalist current and the populist stream. The results of the elections in a number of European countries, as in the United States, expressed this growing presence.
But does the progress of radical and populist nationalist forces necessarily mean a decline in democracy? As the news reader and its viewer in the media can conclude this simple conclusion. This is the understanding of experts and scholars and scholars of political science here and there. This means that we are in the midst of a very simplistic transformation of the world in recent years. This simplification begins by placing all the emerging new powers in one basket, despite their intellectual and political differences. It does not end up being undemocratic, but anti-democratic, perhaps a mere extension of fascism and Nazism, which undermined democracy in five European countries between the 1920s and 70s.
This is a weak assumption that has not been proved. The study of the trends of these forces indicates that their pursuit of their goals does not require the eradication of democracy. Moreover, the living sectors of societies where the values of freedom have been established can resist the restrictions that some of these forces might impose upon assuming power. , As is happening in the United States now.
In the rest of the world, it is wrong to talk about the decline of democracy, which has made only limited steps. More precisely, democracy has entered a new and old stalemate. But what is more important is that those who believe that democracy is diminishing are dwarfing the crisis that the world is going through today. It is the retreat of the humanitarian and moral tendency that has expanded since the Enlightenment and led to the existence of what is called an international conscience that hurts war crimes and crimes against humanity.